Submission and Style Guide

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This guide for contributors is intended to give you information on how we would like to receive your contribution, and how your contribution fits into the encyclopedia as a whole. As the specialist in your field, you have considerable freedom in shaping and formulating your contribution. The direction given by the Area Editor is intended to enhance the coherence of the contributions and to avoid excessive overlap and gaps. We request that you adopt, where appropriate, a multidisciplinary approach to your topic and pay explicit attention, where relevant, to the following facets: social aspects such as hierarchy, gender, age, and ethnicity; the earliest and latest occurrence of the object or phenomenon; material and technology; function and meaning; origin and development; and the most current literature and stable online sources.

UEE Article Template

UEE articles conform to the following template:

  • Entry title
  • Arabic title (will be provided by UEE)
  • Author
  • German title
  • French title
  • Abstract in English
  • Abstract in Arabic (will be provided by UEE)
  • Article Text, including images, if any
  • Bibliographic Notes
  • References
  • Image Credits

Contributors are asked to provide elements 1-7 (with the exception of the Arabic title and abstract) at the top of their article. The size of element 6, the English Abstract, is approximately 250 words for a 6000-word essay, and provides a quick overview and identification of the entry.


Abstracts should give a brief summary of the most important information. A contribution of 3000 words should have an abstract of approximately 100 words.

Size of Your Contribution

The size of your contribution is specified in the Contribution Schedule, which is part of the Agreement between the UC Regents and you as the author. The size of the article reflects the weight of your topic in relation to that of other entries. The specified size is, however, a minimum size, and you are free to exceed it by approximately 20%. If you feel the entry merits even further expansion, please contact your Area Editor. The indicated word count only pertains to the main text and does not include the abstract, Bibliographic Notes, and References.


Please include headers in your text, which clarify the organization of the article and will allow users to find specific information more easily.

Bibliographic Notes

The Bibliographic notes should discuss relevant literature, focusing on "classical" texts and the most recent publications.


We ask that contributors apply minimal formatting to their articles (please, no borders, bullets, justification, etc.), as entries will be reformatted upon submission according to UEE style conventions. Please contact the Area Editor if you are planning to send or upload your article in a word processing program other than MS Word.

Citations and References

The References section, located at the end of the article, presents a comprehensive listing of all the references featured in the article text, Bibliographic Notes, and Image Credits. For examples, see existing UEE articles.


Citations are abbreviated sources cited within parentheses in the article text and/or in the Bibliographic Notes. Citations should start with the author name and year, in the format . See below for specific examples. Importantly, Citations must correspond, source for source, to the References at the end of the article.

If one author: [author name] (Ball 1939: 22-14, 25; Binford 1980: pl. 34a)

If two authors: [first author] and [second author] (Cappers and Bottema 2002: figs. 2, 5-8; Hendrickx and Vermeersch 2000: table 15)

If more than two authors: [first author] et al. (Wendorf et al. 1989: 25, note 66)

As for numeration of pages, plates, tables, etc., please follow these conventions:

If referring to specific pages: [full page numbers] 12-14, 25
If referring to specific plate: pl. [plate number] pl. 34A
If referring to specific figure: fig. [figure number] figs. 2, 5-8
If specific table: table [table number] table 15
If specific note: [page] note [note no.] note 66


References are the unabbreviated sources corresponding to the Citations. In the References, unlike the Citations, all authors should be listed with their full names (i.e., no "et al."). For example:

Book: Ball, John 1939 Contributions to the geography of Egypt. Cairo: Government Press.

Journal Article: Binford, Lewis 1962 Willow smoke and dogs' tails: Hunter-gatherer settlement systems and archaeological site formation. American Antiquity 45, pp. 4-20.

Edited Volume: Cappers, Reinier T. J., and Sietse Bottema, eds. 2002 The dawn of farming in the Near East. Berlin: Ex Oriente.

Book Section: Hendrickx, Stan, and Pierre Vermeersch 2000 Prehistory from the Palaeolithic to the Badarian culture (c.700,000-4,000 BC). In The Oxford history of ancient Egypt, ed. Ian Shaw, pp. 17 - 43. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Book with Multiple Authors: Wendorf, Fred, Romuald Schild, and Angela Close. 1989 The prehistory of Wadi Kubbaniya3: Late Paleolithic archaeology. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press.

Online references will only be accepted if they can be considered stable URLs. Please mention the full URL, the title, and date of access.


The number of images has been specified in the Contribution Schedule, sent to you as part of the Agreement between you and the UC Regents. Contributors are responsible for clearing the copyright for their images. In rare cases when an article requires a very specific image, the editorial staff can be contacted. If an image is not your own, and not in the public domain, please provide information that you have obtained permission.

Illustrations, photographs, or line drawings should be sent in digital format, separate from the text. Please use TIFF format with LZW compression. The minimum size for line drawings should preferably be 1200 pixels/inch, for photographs between 300 and 600 pixels/inch, at a length and width of minimally 2000 pixels.

Please number your images and provide captions that include information on the artist or photographer (where relevant) and the copyright holder.

Maps will be provided by the UEE. All locations will be incorporated in one overall map, from which sections will be placed with each article and interactively populated with place names mentioned in the text (where relevant).

Transcription and Transliteration

In the article text Egyptian terms are generally transcribed in the Roman alphabet and italicized (hetep, ankh). The spelling section lists the transcriptions of the most commonly used words and place names. Whenever relevant, for instance in entries dealing with a specific term, such as the sample article below, the transliteration of the hieroglyphic word is given (Htp, anx). Please use the following conventions to represent transliteration fonts:

Submitting Your Contribution

Please email your contribution as a plain Word file, along with TIFF files of your pictures, to the Area Editor. For requested image resolutions, see above.

Review and Publication of Your Contribution

All articles are reviewed by at least two persons in a double-blind peer review process. Once articles have been accepted, they will be copyedited and made available through two outlets:

PDFs of the article will be made available through eScholarship The article text and images are also stored for long term preservation in the UCLA Digital Library. The texts are marked up and integrated in the interactive version of the UEE, which can be found at:


UEE articles are version controlled, meaning that article texts are not changed, but if new information becomes available a new version will be published, while the old version will remain available in the archive. Thus UEE articles can be quoted as the stable scholarly publications they are.


The UEE Full Version has enhanced search functionality, compared to the eScholarship edition. Apart from full-text search, there is a browse function and a map-based search.

Spelling Conventions

American spelling is used. For the spelling of place names and transliterated names, a running and regularly updated list is provided in the Contributor’s section of the UEE website at


Rounded dates for dynasties and kings are listed at If you wish to diverge from these, please make this explicit in the article, and indicate why you are doing so.