Preferred Chronology

We request contributors of the UEE to use the following chronology as basis. The editors are well aware that many of the rounded dates represented here are a simplification, or represent a particular view. Whenever relevant, authors are encouraged to refine or comment on the chronology for a specific period or subject, but should be aware that in the next phase of development of the UEE, more detailed chronologies will be provided, and several articles will be commissioned discussing the development of chronology, the sources, and their interpretation. We encourage authors to comment on the chronology listed below, or to suggest encyclopedia articles related to chronological issues. Overlapping dates indicate co-regencies.

The chronology is the work of Thomas Schneider (University of British Columbia). The dates before 664 BCE are approximate.

Phase Dynasty Period or Ruler Years BCE
Prehistory Lower Palaeolithic 700,000-175,000
Middle Palaeolithic 175,000-40,000
Upper Palaeolithic 40,000-35,000
Final Palaeolithic 25,000-7000
Epi-palaeolithic 7000-6000
Neolithic 6000-4500
Badarian (Middle Egypt) 4500-4000
Predynastic Badarian (Middle Egypt) 4500-4000
Early A–-group (Lower Nubia)
Naqada I–early II (Upper Egypt)
Maadi/Buto I (Lower Egypt)
4000-3400
Middle A–group (Lower Nubia)
Late Naqada II (Upper Egypt)
Buto II (Lower Egypt)
3400-3300
Late/Final A-group (Lower Nubia)
Naqada IIIa (Upper Egypt)
Buto III (Lower Egypt)
Tomb U-j ruler 3300-3150
‘Dynasty 0’ Naqada IIIb
Buto IV (Lower Egypt)
Irihor(?), Ka / Sekhen, Crocodile (?), Scorpion 3150-2950
Early dynastic Dynasty 1 Naqada IIIc
Buto V (Lower Egypt)
Narmer, Aha [=Menes?], Djer, Wadj / Djet, Merneith (Queen), Den / Dewen, Anedjib, Semerkhet, Qaa 2950-2800
Dynasty 2 Naqada IIId Hetepsekhemwy, Raneb, Ninetjer, Peribsen, Khasekhem(wy) 2800-2670
Old Kingdom Dynasty 3 Netjerykhet (Djoser), Sekhemkhet, Khaba, Huni 2670-2600
Dynasty 4 Sneferu 2600-2480
Khufu (Cheops)
Radjedef (Djedefra)
Khafra (Rakhaef, Chephren)
Menkaura (Mycerinus, Mykerinos)
Shepseskaf
Dynasty 5 Userkaf 2480-2350
Sahura
Neferirkara Kakai
Shepseskara Ini
Raneferef (Neferefra)
Neuserra Isi
Menkauhor
Djedkara Isesi
Unas
Dynasty 6 Tety 2350-2200
Pepy I (Meryra)
Merenra Nemtyemsaf
Pepy II (Neferkara)
(Dynasty 7)
Dynasty 8
Brief rules of several kings
(including Neferkara)
2200-2168
First Intermediate Period Dynasty 9
Dynasty 10
Herakleopolitan dynasties, brief rules of several kings (Khety, Merykara, Ity). 2168-2030
Dynasty 11 Theban dynasty in divided Egypt 2130-1990
[Mentuhotep Tepy-a (I)]
Intef I (Sehertawy)
Intef II (Wahankh)
Intef III (Nakhtnebtepnufer)
Nebhepetra Mentuhotep (II)(unification of Egypt in 2040) 2061-2010
Middle Kingdom
Seankhkara Mentuhotep (III) 2010-1998
Nebtawyra Mentuhotep (IV) 1998-1990
Dynasty 12 Amenemhat I (Sehetepibra) 1990-1961
Senusret I (Kheperkara) 1971-1926
Amenemhat II (Nubkaura) 1928-1893
Senusret II (Khakheperra) 1896-1887
Senusret III (Khakaura) 1887-1848
Amenemhat III (Nimaatra) 1868-1822
Amenemhat IV (Maakherura) 1822-1812
Neferusobek (Sobekkara), Queen 1812-1809
Dynasty 13 Approximately 70 kings, among whom:
Wegaf, Amenemhat V-VII, Sobekhotep I-V, Neferhotep I-III, Hor, Khendjer, Mentuemsaf.
1809-1656
(Dynasty 14) Several kings, probably contemporary with the 13th or the 15th dynasty.
Second Intermediate Period Dynasty 15 Hyksos kings:
Salitis, Sheshi, Khian, Apep, Khamudi
1640-1532
Dynasty 16 Minor Hyksos rulers, contemporary with the 15th dynasty
Dynasty 17 Theban dynasty in divided Egypt, numerous kings, among whom:
Intef V, Sobekemsaf I and II, and the last three:
1690-1548
Tao I (Senakhtenra)
Tao II (Seqenenra)
Kamose (Wadjkheperra) 1555-1548
New Kingdom Dynasty 18 Ahmose (Nebpehtyra) 1548-1523
Amenhotep I (Djeserkara) 1523-1502
Thutmose I (Aakheperkara) 1502-1492
Thutmose II (Aakheperenra) 1492-1479
Thutmose III (Menkheperra) 1479-1425
Hatshepsut (Maatkara), Queen 1473-1458
Amenhotep II (Aakheperura) 1425-1399
Thutmose IV (Menkheperura) 1399-1389
Amenhotep III (Nebmaatra) 1389-1349
Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten (Neferkheperura Waenra) 1349-1332
Semenkhkara (Ankh kheperura) 1332-1328
Tutankhamen (Nebkheperura) 1328-1319
Aye (Kheperkheperura) 1319-1316
Horemheb (Djeserkheperura) 1316-1302
Dynasty 19 Ramesses I (Menpehtyra) 1302-1301
Sety I (Menmaatra) 1301-1290
Ramesses II (Usermaatra Setepenra) 1290-1224
Merenptah (Baenra Hotephermaat) 1224-1214
Sety II (Userkheperura Setepenra) 1214-1208
Amenmesse (Menmira) 1208-1206
Siptah (Akhenra Setepenra) 1206-1198
Tauseret (Sitra Merytamen) 1206-1198
Dynasty 20 Sethnakhte (Userkhaura Meryamen) 1198-1195
Ramesses III (Usermaatra Meryamen) 1195-1164
Ramesses IV (Hekamaatra Setepenamen) 1164-1156
Ramesses V (Usermaatra Sekheperenra) 1156-1152
Ramesses VI (Nebmaatra Meryamen) 1152-1144
Ramesses VII (Usermaatra Setepenra Merytamen) 1144-1137
Ramesses VIII (Usermaatra Akhenamen) 1137
Ramesses IX (Neferkara Setepenra) 1137-1118
Ramesses X (Khepermaatra Setepenra) 1118-1115
Ramesses XI (Menmaatra Setepenptah) 1115-1086
Third Intermediate Period Dynasty 21(Tanis) Smendes (Hedjkheperra Setepenra) 1086-1060
Amenemnisu (Neferkara) 1060-1056
Psusennes I (Aakheperra Setepenamen) 1056-1010
Amenemope (Usermaatra Setepenamen) 1010-1001
Osorkon I “the elder” (Aakheperra Setepenra) 1001-995
Siamun (Netjerkheperra Setepenamen) 995-976
Psusennes II (Titkheperura Setepenra) 976-962
Dynasty 22(Bubastis) Shoshenq I (Hedjkheperra Setepenra) 962-941
Osorkon I (Sekhemkehperra Setepenra) 941-906
Shoshenq IIa-c (Hekakheperra Setepenra) 906-881
Takelot I (Usermaatra Setepenamen) 881-868
Osorkon II (Usermaatra Setepenamen) 868-833
Shoshenq III (Usermaatra Setepenra/amen) 833-794
Shoshenq IV 794-781
Pami (Usermaatra Setepenra/amen) 781-774
Shoshenq V (Aakheperra) 774-736
Dynasty 23
(Tanis/
Libyan)
Kings recognized in Thebes, Hermopolis, Herakleopolis, Leontopolis and Tanis.
Pedubaste I (Usermaatra) 828-803
Osorkon IV (Usermaatra Setepenamen) 777-749
Peftjauawybast (Neferkara) 740-725
Dynasty 24(Sais) Tefnakhte (Shepsesra?) 724-717
Bocchoris Bakenrenef (Wahkara) 717-712
Dynasty 25(Kushite) Kashta (Nimaatra) 770-750
Piankhy / Piye (Usermaatra) 750-722/21
Shabaqo (Neferkara) 722/21-706
Shabitqo (Djedkaura) 706-690
Taharqo (Khunefertemra) 690-664
Tanutamani (Bakara) 664-656
Dynasty 26 [Necho I] 672-664
Late Period (Sais) Psammetichus I (Wahibra) 664-610
Necho II (Wehemibra) 610-595
Psammetichus II (Neferibra) 595-589
Apries (Haibra) 589-570
Amasis / Ahmose II (Khnemibra) 570-526
Psammetichus III (Ankhkaenra) 526-525
Dynasty 27(Persian) Cambyses 525-522
Darius I 521-486
Xerxes I 486-466
Artaxerxes I 465-424
Xerxes II 424
Sogdianos 424
Darius II 424-404
Artaxerxes II Memnon 404-402
Dynasty 28 Amyrtaios 404-399
Dynasty 29 Nepherites I (Baenra Merynetjeru) 399-393
Psammuthis (Userra Setepenptah) 393
Hakoris (Khnemmaatra) 393-380
Nepherites II 380
Dynasty 30 Nectanebo I (Kheperkara) 380-363
Teos (Irmaatenra) 362-361
Nectanebo II (Senedjemibra Setepenanhur) 360-343
Second Persian Period Artaxerxes III Ochus 343-338
Arses 338-336
Darius III Codoman 335-332
(Indigenous ruler) Khababash (Senentanen Setepenptah) 337/6-
Greco-Roman
Period
Macedonian Alexander III the Great 332-323
Philip Arrhidaeus 323-316
Alexander IV 316-304
Ptolemaic Ptolemy I Soter I 304-284
Ptolemy II Philadelphus 285-246
Ptolemy III Euergetes I 246-221
Ptolemy IV Philopator 221-205
Ptolemy V Epiphanes 205-180
(Indigenous ruler) Harwennefer 205-199
(Indigenous ruler) Ankhwennefer 199-186
Ptolemy VI Philometor 180-164
163-145
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator 145
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Physkon) 170-163
145-116
(Indigenous ruler) Harsiese 131
Cleopatra III
Ptolemy IX
Queen, and
Soter II (Latyros)
116-107
Cleopatra III
Ptolemy X
Queen, and
Alexander I
107-88
Ptolemy IX Soter II 88-81
Cleopatra Berenike 81-80
Ptolemy XI Alexander II 80
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) 80-58
Berenike IV 58-55
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) 55-51
Cleopatra VII Queen 51-30
Ptolemy XIII 51-47
Ptolemy XIV 47-44
Ptolemy XV Caesarion 44-30
Roman Augustus 30 BCE – 14 CE
Tiberius 14-37
Gaius (Caligula) 37-41
Claudius 41-54
Nero 54-68
Galba 68-69
Otho 69
Vespasian 69-79
Titus 79-81
Domitian 81-96
Nerva 96-98
Trajan 98-117
Hadrian 117-138
Antoninus Pius 138-161
Marcus Aurelius 161-180
Lucius Verus 161-169
Commodus 180-192
Septimius Severus 193-211
Caracalla 198-217
Geta 209-212
Macrinus 217-218
Elegabalus 218-222
Severus Alexander 222-235
Gordian III 238-244
Philip 244-249
Decius 249-251
Gallus and Volusianus 251-253
Valerian 253-260
Gallienus 253-268
Macrianus and Quietus 260-261
Aurelian 270-275
Probus 276-282
Diocletian 284-305
Maximian 286-305
Galerius 293-311
Constantine I 306-337
Maxentius 306-312
Maximinus Daia 307-324
Licinius 308-324
Constantine II 337-340
Constans 337-350
Constantius II 337-361
Magnetius 350-353
Julian the Apostate 361-363
Jovian 363-364
Valentinian I 364-375
Valens 364-378
Gratian 375-383
Theodosius the Great 379-395
Valentinian II 383-392
Eugenius 392-394
Division of the Roman Empire
Late Roman or Byzantine Period
395